Kiesler was a theater and art-exhibition designer in the 1920s in Vienna and Berlin. From 1920, he briefly collaborated with Adolf Loos and became a member of the De Stijl group in 1923. Artist, architect, and visionary, Kiesler was friendly with many of the major figures of the European avant-garde.In 1942, Peggy Guggenheim commissioned Kiesler to design her gallery, "The Art of This Century," with an emphasis on "developing new methods for exhibiting paintings, drawings, sculptures and objects." There, Kiesler designed revolutionary presentation systems and multi-functional furniture for four exhibit spaces featuring such artists as Marcel Duchamp and Paul Klee. The gallery showcased works by established European artists with an emphasis on Surrealism and also exhibited the works of lesser known American artists, often for the first time.